This research is a collaboration between ICF/MACRO and CHDC. Uganda’s Option B+ Program initiates all pregnant and breastfeeding women on daily antiretroviral therapy (ART) for life, regardless of their initial CD4 cell count. Many women do not adhere to treatment and drop out of the PMTCT program. This research seeks to understand gender-specific factors that influence women’s non-adherence to treatment and participation in the PMTCT program. The research focuses on maternal, interpersonal, and programmatic/systemic factors that interplay with gender factors to influence attitudes and practices of HIV+ women who are in PMTCT programs and those who do not adhere to medication and have dropped out.