• High HPV vaccination coverage is critical for preventing cervical cancer worldwide.
• School-based programs effectively deliver vaccines to adolescents attending school.
• We propose ways to ensure out-of-school girls have equitable access to HPV vaccines.
• Important to quantify out-of-school girls and research barriers to HPV vaccination.
• To increase uptake, consider targeted communication, outreach and integrated programs.
HPV; Human papillomavirus vaccine; Cervical cancer; Implementation; Vaccine uptake; Vaccination programs; Adolescents; School-based programs; LMICs; Africa